LDS – "Now WE ARE GENEROUS WITH THE NEGRO. WE ARE WILLING that the Negro have the highest kind of education. I WOULD BE WILLING to LET every Negro DRIVE A CADILLAC IF THEY COULD AFFORD IT. I WOULD BE WILLING that they have all the advantages they can get out of life in the world. BUT LET THEM ENJOY THESE THINGS AMONG THEMSELVES." LDS "Apostle" Mark E. Petersen, "Race Problems – As They Affect The Church," Address delivered at Brigham Young University, August 27, 1954, as quoted in Jerald and Sandra Tanner's book entitled, "The Changing World of Mormonism," p. 307, emphasis added.
COWARDS IN THE "PRE-EXISTENCE" ?
LDS – "Those who were LESS VALIANT IN PRE-EXISTENCE and who thereby had certain spiritual restrictions imposed upon them during mortality are known to us as the NEGROES." LDS "Apostle" Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, p. 527, 1966 edition, emphasis added. LDS – "THE NEGROES ARE NOT EQUAL WITH OTHER RACES where the receipt of certain spiritual blessings are concerned, …but this inequality is not of man's origin. IT IS THE LORD'S DOING, is based on his eternal laws of justice, and grows out of the LACK OF SPIRITUAL VALIANCE OF THOSE CONCERNED IN THEIR FIRST ESTATE [the Mormon pre-existence]." LDS "Apostle" Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, p. 527 – 528, 1966 edition, emphasis added. LDS – "…[T]hrough their INDIFFERENCE or LACK OF INTEGRITY TO RIGHTEOUSNESS, [blacks] rendered themselves UNWORTHY of the Priesthood and its powers…." LDS "Historian" B. H. Roberts, The Contributor, vol. 6, pp. 296-297, as quoted in Jerald and Sandra Tanner's book entitled "The Changing World of Mormonism," p. 293, emphasis added. LDS – "Is there reason then why the type of birth we receive in this life is not A REFLECTION OF OUR WORTHINESS or LACK OF IT IN THE PRE-EXISTENT LIFE? …[C]an we account in any other way for the birth of some of the children of God in DARKEST AFRICA, or in FLOOD-RIDDEN CHINA, or among the STARVING HORDES OF INDIA, while some of the rest of us are born here in the United States? We cannot escape the conclusion that BECAUSE OF PERFORMANCE IN OUR PRE-EXISTENCE some of us are born as CHINESE, some as JAPANESE, some as Latter-day Saints. …A CHINESE, BORN IN CHINA WITH A DARK SKIN, and with all the HANDICAPS OF THAT RACE seems to have little opportunity. But think of the mercy of God to Chinese people who are willing to accept the gospel. IN SPITE OF WHATEVER THEY MIGHT HAVE DONE IN THE PRE-EXISTENCE TO JUSTIFY BEING BORN OVER THERE AS CHINAMEN, if they now, in this life accept the gospel and live it the rest of their lives they can have the Priesthood, go to the temple and receive endowments and sealings, and that means they can have exaltation. Isn't the mercy of God marvelous? Think of the Negro, cursed as to the priesthood…. THIS NEGRO, WHO, IN THE PRE-EXISTENCE LIVED THE TYPE OF LIFE WHICH JUSTIFIED THE LORD IN SENDING HIM TO EARTH IN THE LINEAGE OF CAIN WITH A BLACK SKIN, AND POSSIBLY BEING BORN IN DARKEST AFRICA…. IN SPITE OF ALL HE DID IN THE PRE-EXISTENT LIFE, the Lord is willing, if the Negro accepts the gospel with real, sincere faith, and is really converted, to give him the blessings of baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost. IF THAT NEGRO IS FAITHFUL ALL HIS DAYS, he can and will enter the celestial kingdom. HE WILL GO THERE AS A SERVANT, but he will get celestial glory." LDS "Apostle" Mark E. Petersen, "Race Problems – As They Affect the Church," Address delivered at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, August 27, 1954, as quoted in Jerald and Sandra Tanner's book entitled "The Changing World of Mormonism," p. 294. Note: Allegedly, even "if that Negro is faithful all his days," he will never achieve equality with his "white and delightsome" Mormon brethren. Instead he allegedly will go to the celestial kingdom "AS A SERVANT!"
A CURSE ON THE "SEED OF CAIN" ?
LDS – "You see some classes of the human family that are BLACK, UNCOUTH, UNCOMELY, DISAGREEABLE and LOW in their habits, WILD, and seemingly DEPRIVED OF NEARLY ALL THE BLESSINGS OF THE INTELLIGENCE that is generally bestowed upon mankind. The first man that committed the odious crime of killing one of his brethren will be cursed the longest of any one of the children of Adam. Cain slew his brother. Cain might have been KILLED, and THAT WOULD HAVE PUT A TERMINATION TO THAT LINE OF HUMAN BEINGS. This was not to be, and the Lord put A MARK upon him, which is THE FLAT NOSE AND BLACK SKIN. Trace mankind down to after the flood, and then another curse is pronounced upon the same race — that they should be the "servants of servants;" and they will be, until that curse is removed; and the Abolitionists cannot help it, nor in the least alter that decree." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 7, p. 290, 1859, emphasis added. LDS – "Though he was a rebel and an ASSOCIATE OF LUCIFER IN PRE-EXISTENCE, …Cain managed to attain the privilege of mortal birth…. [H]e came out in open rebellion, fought God, worshiped Lucifer, and slew Abel…. AS A RESULT OF HIS REBELLION, CAIN WAS CURSED WITH A DARK SKIN; HE BECAME THE FATHER OF THE NEGROES, and THOSE SPIRITS WHO ARE NOT WORTHY to receive the priesthood are born through his lineage." LDS "Apostle" Bruce McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, pp. 108-109, 1966 edition, emphasis added. LDS – "…[F]rom Ham sprang the race which preserved the curse in the land." LDS Pearl of Great Price, Abraham 1:24. LDS – "Noah's son Ham married Egyptus, a descendant of Cain, thus preserving the Negro lineage through the flood." LDS "Apostle" Bruce McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, p. 527, 1966 edition, emphasis added. LDS – "And after the flood we are told that the curse that had been pronounced upon Cain was continued through Ham's wife, as he had married a wife of that seed. And why did it pass through the flood? Because it was necessary that THE DEVIL SHOULD HAVE A REPRESENTATION UPON THE EARTH as well as God…." LDS "Prophet" John Taylor, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 22, p. 304, 1881, emphasis added.
Note: Taylor claimed that blacks were Satan's representatives on Earth.LDS – "Ham will continue to be servant of servants, as the Lord decreed, until the curse is removed. Will the present struggle [the U.S. civil war] free the slave? No…. Can you destroy the decrees of the Almighty? You cannot." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 10, p. 250, 1863. LDS – "For behold, the Lord shall curse the land with much heat, and the barrenness thereof shall go forth forever; and there was a BLACKNESS came upon all the children of Canaan, that they were DESPISED AMONG ALL PEOPLE." LDS Pearl of Great Price, Moses 7:8, emphasis added. LDS – "And it came to pass that Enoch continued to call upon all people, SAVE IT WERE THE PEOPLE OF CANAAN, to repent." LDS Pearl of Great Price, Moses 7:12, emphasis added. Note: Mormonism long considered blacks unworthy of its missionary efforts, essentially unworthy of the Gospel message. LDS – "The gospel message of salvation is NOT CARRIED AFFIRMATIVELY TO THEM [blacks]…." LDS "Apostle" Bruce McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, p. 527, 1966 edition, emphasis added. THE TRUTH: "He [Jesus] said to them, 'Go into all the world and PREACH THE GOOD NEWS TO ALL CREATION.'" Mark 16:15, emphasis added. THE TRUTH: [Jesus said]: "Therefore go and make disciples of ALL NATIONS, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you." Matthew 28:19, emphasis added.
BLACKS: NO PRIESTHOOD "IN THIS LIFE" !
LDS – "Negroes IN THIS LIFE are denied the priesthood; UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES can they hold this delegation of authority from the Almighty." LDS "Apostle" Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, p. 527, 1966 edition, emphasis added. (See also LDS Pearl of Great Price, Abraham 1:20-27) LDS – "Not only was Cain called upon to suffer, but because of his wickedness he became THE FATHER OF AN INFERIOR RACE. A curse was placed upon him and that curse has been continued through his lineage and must do so WHILE TIME ENDURES. Millions of souls have come into this world cursed with a BLACK SKIN and have been DENIED THE PRIVILEGE OF PRIESTHOOD and the fulness of the blessings of the Gospel. These are the descendants of Cain. Moreover, they have been made to FEEL THEIR INFERIORITY and have been SEPARATED from the rest of mankind from the beginning. Enoch saw the people of Canaan, descendants of Cain, and he says, 'and there was a blackness came upon all the children of Canaan, that they were DESPISED AMONG ALL PEOPLE.'" LDS "Prophet" Joseph Fielding Smith, The Way to Perfection, pp. 101-102, 1931, emphasis added. LDS – "I tell you, this people that are commonly called negroes are the children of old Cain. I know they are, I know that THEY CANNOT BEAR RULE IN THE PRIESTHOOD, for the curse on them was to REMAIN upon them, until the resedue (sic) of the posterity of Michal (sic) and his wife receive the blessings…and hold the keys of the priesthood…. In the kingdom of God ON THE EARTH THE AFFRICANS (sic) CANNOT HOLD ONE PARTICAL (sic) OF POWER IN GOVERNMENT [within the LDS church]." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Brigham Young Addresses, Ms d 1234, Box 48, folder 3, Feb. 5, 1852, as quoted in Bob Witte's book entitled "Where Does It Say That?," p. 2-9, emphasis added. LDS – "How long is that race to endure the dreadful curse that is upon them? That curse will REMAIN UPON THEM, and THEY NEVER CAN HOLD THE PRIESTHOOD or share in it until all the other descendants of Adam have received the promises and enjoyed the blessings of the Priesthood and the keys thereof. Until the last ones of the residue of Adam's children are brought up to that favourable position, THE CHILDREN OF CAIN CANNOT RECEIVE THE FIRST ORDINANCES OF THE PRIESTHOOD. They were the first that were cursed, and they will be the last from whom the curse will be removed. When the residue of the family of Adam come up and receive their blessings, then the curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will receive blessings in like proportion." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 7, pp. 290-291, 1859, emphasis added. LDS – "When all the other children of Adam have had the privilege of receiving the Priesthood, and of coming into the kingdom of God, and of being redeemed from the four quarters of the earth, and HAVE RECEIVED THEIR RESURRECTION FROM THE DEAD, then it will be time enough to remove the curse from Cain and his posterity." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 2, p. 143, 1854, emphasis added. Note: Young taught that blacks would not receive the Mormon priesthood until AFTER the resurrection. LDS – "They [blacks] will GO DOWN TO DEATH. And when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the Holy Priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the priesthood, and receive all the blessings which WE now are entitled to." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 11, p.272, 1866, emphasis added. LDS – "In the spirit of SYMPATHY, MERCY and faith, we will also hope that blessings may eventually be given to our negro brethren, for they are our brethren – children of God – NOTWITHSTANDING THEIR BLACK COVERING EMBLEMATICAL OF ETERNAL DARKNESS." LDS "Prophet" Joseph Fielding Smith, The Way to Perfection, p. 102, 1931, emphasis added. Note: Even as LDS "Prophet" Joseph Fielding Smith professed "sympathy" and "mercy" toward blacks, he continued to preach condemnation and contempt for them. THE TRUTH: "Do not let anyone who delights in FALSE HUMILITY and the worship of angels DISQUALIFY YOU FOR THE PRIZE. Such a person goes into great detail about what he has seen, and his unspiritual mind PUFFS HIM UP WITH IDLE NOTIONS. He has lost connection with the Head, from whom the WHOLE BODY, …grows as God causes it to grow." Colossians 2:18-19, emphasis added. Mormonism contradicts Itself: LDS – "…[W]E HAVE PLEADED LONG AND EARNESTLY IN BEHALF OF THESE, OUR FAITHFUL [black] BRETHREN…. He has heard our prayers, and by revelation has confirmed that the long-promised day has come…. Accordingly, all worthy male members of the Church may be ordained to the priesthood without regard for race or color." LDS "Prophet" Spencer Kimball, Deseret News, June 9, 1978, p. 1A, as quoted in Jerald and Sandra Tanner's book entitled "The Changing World of Mormonism," p. 309, emphasis added. Note: Despite Mormonism's 148 years of teaching white superiority as the "word of God," LDS "Prophet" Spencer Kimball feigned compassion and support for blacks by allegedly intervening with God on behalf of "these, our faithful brethren." Astonishingly, Kimball seemed to actually take credit for convincing God to change His mind on the issue. Mormonism finally allowed blacks to enter the Mormon priesthood in 1978, amid allegations of racial discrimination. Kimball claimed to receive a "revelation" from God granting such access but, strangely, the LDS church has not made the contents of that "revelation" available to the public. It is also interesting to note that Mormonism has not rejected its underlying doctrines of white supremacy, which are still present in Mormon "scripture" (see LDS Pearl of Great Price, Moses 5:16-41; 7:8, 12, 22; Abraham 1:20-27 and Book of Mormon, Alma 3:6-9, 14; 2 Nephi 5:21; 30:6-7). Question: Blacks and other non-Caucasians still possess "dark skins" which Mormonism alleges to be an indication of inferiority, a mark of unworthiness in the pre-existence. Does this mean that the Mormon priesthood is now available to the "unworthy and inferior," as well as to those self-proclaimed "worthy and superior" individuals whom God has allegedly rewarded with "white and delightsome" skins?
THE "EVIL," THE "VILE," THE "IGNORANT," & THE "WICKED" ?
LDS – "…[T]he land was left to the possession of the RED MEN [native Americans], WHO WERE WITHOUT INTELLIGENCE…. [T]he land was again peopled, in a measure, by a RUDE, WILD, REVENGEFUL, WARLIKE AND BARBAROUS RACE. – SUCH ARE OUR INDIANS." LDS "Historian" Oliver Cowdery, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Vol. 1, July, 1835, p, 158, emphasis added. LDS – "And the skins of the Lamanites [native Americans] were DARK, …which was A CURSE UPON THEM…. And this was done that their seed might be distinguished from the seed of their brethren, that thereby the Lord God might PRESERVE HIS PEOPLE, that they might NOT MIX and believe in incorrect traditions WHICH WOULD PROVE THEIR DESTRUCTION." Book of Mormon, Alma 3:6-8, emphasis added. LDS – "Thus the WORD OF GOD is fulfilled…: Behold, the Lamanites [native Americans] have I CURSED, and I will set a mark on them that they and their seed may be SEPARATED FROM THEE AND THY SEED, FROM THIS TIME HENCEFORTH and FOREVER, except they repent of their wickedness and turn to me that I may have mercy upon them." Book of Mormon, Alma 3:14, emphasis added. LDS – "Here are the Lamanites [native Americans]…. Their wickedness was not so great as those [Jews] who slew the Son of God. …Is their curse as great as that of those in Palestine? No, it is light, in comparison. They began to thirst for each other's blood, and massacred each other, from generation to generation, until they SUNK INTO WICKEDNESS, and EVIL principles the most DEGRADING, and have become LOATHSOME and VILE. Still THE CURSE WILL BE REMOVED from them before it will be removed from the children of Judah; and THEY WILL BECOME A "WHITE AND DELIGHTSOME PEOPLE." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 2, p. 143, 1854, emphasis added. LDS – "And the Gospel of Jesus Christ shall be declared among them; wherefore, …their scales of darkness shall begin to fall from their eyes; and many generations shall not pass away among them, save THEY SHALL BE A WHITE AND A DELIGHTSOME PEOPLE. " Book of Mormon (1830 edition), 2 Nephi, Chapter XII, p. 117, emphasis added. Note: This passage from the original Book of Mormon has subsequently been altered by Mormonism's leaders. The Book of Mormon, 2 Nephi 30:6, now reads: "they shall be a PURE and a delightsome people." Substituting "pure" for "white" seems to indicate that Mormonism considers those two words to be interchangeable. The logical assumption, then, is that Mormonism also considers "NON-white" to be the equivalent of "impure." Even in this attempt to obscure its racist "scripture," Mormonism continues to divulge its underlying doctrine of white supremacy. LDS – "I would rather undertake to convert five thousand Lamanites [native Americans], than to convert one of those poor MISERABLE CREATURES [Jews] WHOSE FATHERS KILLED THE SAVIOR…. Yes, I would rather undertake to CONVERT THE DEVIL HIMSELF, if it were possible. …I would say, LEAVE THEM, AND COME HOME, THE LORD DOES NOT REQUIRE YOU TO STAY THERE, FOR THEY MUST SUFFER AND BE DAMNED. …[L]EAVE THEM TO LIVE AND DIE IN THEIR SINS and IGNORANCE. …[T]HEY TAKE PLEASURE IN THEIR WICKEDNESS…." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 2, p. 143, 1854, emphasis added. Note: Brigham Young held Jews responsible for the death of Christ. He taught that Jews were likewise cursed with a dark skin and were essentially beyond the reach of the Gospel message. Perhaps it didn't occur to Young that Christ Himself had pleaded for the forgiveness of the Jews who were responsible for His death. THE TRUTH: "When they came to the place called the Skull, there they crucified him, along with the criminals – one on his right, the other on his left. Jesus said, 'Father, FORGIVE THEM, for they do not know what they are doing….'" Luke 23:34, emphasis added.
DON'T "TAINT THE WELL-SPRING" ?
"…[T]he NEGRO SEEKS ABSORPTION WITH THE WHITE RACE. He will not be satisfied until he achieves it BY INTERMARRIAGE. THAT IS HIS OBJECTIVE and we must face it. We must not …feel so sorry for negroes that we will open our arms and embrace them with everything we have." LDS "Apostle" Mark E. Petersen, "Race Problems – As They Affect The Church," Address delivered at Brigham Young University, August 27, 1954, as quoted in Jerald and Sandra Tanner's book entitled, "The Changing World of Mormonism," pp. 306-307, emphasis added. LDS – "If we sit with negroes at our tables, if we entertain them as our guests and social equals, if we disregard the color line in all other relations, is it possible to maintain it fixedly in the sexual relation, in the marriage of our sons and daughters, in the PROPAGATION OF OUR SPECIES? Unquestionably, No! …[O]nce the middle wall of social partition [is] broken down, the mingling of tides of life would begin instantly and proceed steadily. …As a race, the Southern CAUCASIAN WOULD BE IRREVERSIBLY DOOMED. For no possible check could be given to this process once established. …The moment the bar of ABSOLUTE SEPARATION is thrown down in the south, that moment the bloom of her spirit is BLIGHTED FOREVER, the promise of her destiny is annulled, the proud fabric of her future slips into dust and ashes. No other conceivable disaster that might befall the south could, for an instant, compare with such miscegenation within her borders. Flood and fire, fever and famine and the sword – even ignorance, indolence, and carpet-baggery – she may endure and conquer WHILE HER BLOOD REMAINS PURE; but once TAINT THE WELL-SPRING OF HER LIFE, AND ALL IS LOST – EVEN HONOR ITSELF. " William Benjamin Smith, The Color Line, as quoted in LDS "Historian" B.H. Roberts' book entitled "First Year Book in the Seventy's Course in Theology," 1931, pp. 231 – 233, emphasis added. LDS – "But some may deny that the MONGRELIZATION of the southern people would …CORRUPT OR DEGRADE THE SOUTHERN STOCK OF HUMANITY. If so, then such a one has yet to learn the largest-writ (sic) lessons of history and the most impressive doctrines of biological science. That THE NEGRO IS MARKEDLY INFERIOR TO THE CAUCASIAN is proved both craniologically and by six thousand years of planet-wide experimentation…." William Benjamin Smith, The Color Line, as quoted in LDS "Historian" B.H. Roberts' book entitled "First Year Book in the Seventy's Course in Theology," 1931, p. 232, emphasis added. LDS – "But let me tell you further. Let my seed mingle with the seed of Cain, that brings the curse upon me, and upon my generations…. On that very day, and hour we should do so, the priesthood is taken from this church and kingdom [,] and God leaves us to our fate." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Brigham Young Addresses, Ms d 1234, Box 48, folder 3, Feb. 5, 1852, as quoted in Bob Witte's book entitled "Where Does It Say That?", p. 2-9. LDS – "Shall I tell you the LAW OF GOD in regard to the AFRICAN race? If the WHITE MAN who belongs to the CHOSEN SEED mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is DEATH ON THE SPOT. This will ALWAYS be so." LDS "Prophet" Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 10, p.110, 1863, emphasis added. Mormonism contradicts itself: LDS – "…[W]orthy males of all races can now receive the Melchizedek Priesthood…. It means that members of all races may now be married in the temple, although INTERRACIAL MARRIAGES ARE DISCOURAGED by the Brethren…." LDS "Apostle" Bruce McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, pp. 526-528, 1979 printing of 1966 edition. Note: Mormonism grudgingly allowed blacks to enter its priesthood in 1978 in order to attract other tithers. But notice the continuing racial prejudice, even as the group attempts to declare that blacks are now acceptable!
"A CASTE APART" ?
LDS – "…[I]n a broad sense, CASTE SYSTEMS have their root and origin in the gospel itself, and when they operate according to the DIVINE DECREE, the resultant RESTRICTIONS AND SEGREGATION ARE RIGHT AND PROPER and have the APPROVAL OF THE LORD. To illustrate: Cain, Ham, and the whole negro race have been cursed with a black skin, the mark of Cain, so they can be identified as A CASTE APART, a people with whom the other descendants of Adam should NOT INTERMARRY." LDS "Apostle" Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, pp. 108-109, 1966 edition, emphasis added.
Note: Allegedly, Mormonism's doctrines of racial discrimination are "right and proper," actually approved by God! LDS – "…When the Lord chose the nations to which the spirits were to come, determining that some would be JAPANESE and some would be CHINESE and some NEGROES and some Americans, HE ENGAGED IN AN ACT OF SEGREGATION. …When He cursed the descendants of Cain as to the Priesthood, HE ENGAGED IN SEGREGATION…. Who placed the Negroes originally in darkest Africa? Was it some man, or was it God? And when He placed them there, HE SEGREGATED THEM…. THE LORD SEGREGATED THE PEOPLE BOTH AS TO BLOOD AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE. At least in the cases of the Lamanites [Native Americans] and the Negroes we have the definite WORD OF THE LORD HIMSELF that He placed a dark skin upon them AS A CURSE – AS A PUNISHMENT AND AS A SIGN TO ALL OTHERS. He FORBADE INTERMARRIAGE with them…." LDS "Apostle" Mark E. Petersen, "Race Problems – As They Affect The Church," Address delivered at Brigham Young University, August 27, 1954, as quoted in Jerald and Sandra Tanner's book entitled, "The Changing World of Mormonism," pp. 306-307, emphasis added. LDS – "Here, then, is laid bare the nerve of the whole matter: Is the south [southern U.S.] justified in this ABSOLUTE DENIAL OF SOCIAL EQUALITY TO THE NEGRO, no matter what his virtues or abilities or accomplishments? WE AFFIRM, then, that THE SOUTH IS ENTIRELY RIGHT in thus keeping open at all times, at all hazards, and at all sacrifices AN IMPASSIBLE SOCIAL CHASM BETWEEN BLACK AND WHITE. This she must do IN BEHALF OF HER BLOOD, her essence, of THE STOCK OF HER CAUCASIAN RACE." William Benjamin Smith, The Color Line, as quoted in LDS "Historian" B.H. Roberts' book entitled "First Year Book in the Seventy's Course in Theology," 1931, p. 231, emphasis added