We don’t have the physics to describe it yet, but black holes don’t destroy everything that falls into them. They convert most of it into pre-elemental particles and squirt it out into another universe which keeps expanding, exactly like ours. Black holes act as seeds for new universes, but why? Perhaps they act as safety valves which keep our universe from popping like a balloon. Physicists say that the continuing expansion of our universe is caused by an internal force called ‘dark energy’, but they have it inside out or, more accurately, they don’t think outside the universe. So what is ‘dark matter’? The interface where spacetime is being warped by expansion and that causes light to bend.
Visualize the universe as bubble rising from the bottom of a tank of water. As it rises, its speed and size increase – so all of the atoms within the bubble move away from all of the others at an increasing rate – which is exactly what our universe is doing – but the bubble itself is rising at an increasing speed as well; something we can never see. Neither can we ever see the location of the erroneously named ‘Big Bang’ because we have no attachment to that place anymore. We are a rising bubble. And we seem to be sprouting safety valves. There is one at the center of every galaxy. If you think of it that way, it becomes clear that the universe would be easy to understand if we could observe it from the outside like we can observe many rising bubbles…all separate and different, yet all doing the same thing…appearing and disappearing as new bubbles form.
On earth, bubbles from the ocean floor can sink ships and destroy oil platforms. Like Balloons, which eventually burst when they expand too far, bubbles from the depths are held together by pressure and cannot burst until the water pressure becomes less than the pressure within the bubble. Even then, they merely burst into smaller bubbles. It seems reasonable to me that our universe and all universes expand until they burst. Quite likely by squirting through black holes.
In any event, our event horizon is our bubble. We can’t know anything outside of it and we can’t understand what it is from the inside. It would be pretty slick if we could flit back and forth between universes (rendering both time and the speed of light irrelevant) but I doubt we will ever get that far. I grasp the impossibility of any of this in physics as we know it – but we don’t know as much as we believe we do and we aren’t open-minded enough to accept that we aren’t the brightest stars in the sky.
All of these universes may have entirely different types of matter and therefore completely different physics and none of them are fixed or eternal. That in itself is not acceptable to many people.
We estimate the age of the universe at ~13.8 billion years old and Earth is probably around ~4.5 billion years old. Our sun may have another ~4.5 to ~5 billion years left until it burns out and takes our solar system (and us) with it.
The odds that other civilizations exist are greater than the odds that we exist, so they do. But in order to get here they must be able to travel well beyond the speed of light AND cut corners through spacetime AND have a reason for coming here. The only possible reasons are liquid water and the possibility that earth is a biology project. or a zoo. Other than those, we have nothing to offer. We clearly have no possible defense against civilizations which exist orders of magnitude above our intelligence levels, so planning to fight them is not rational. Why would they fight? They can leave us to our own devices and we will become extinct within a century anyway, either by war or by expending all of the natural resources on the planet by fighting over what’s left, as we are starting to do now.
So…..because our natural resources are disappearing but the population keeps expanding, we will see war, famine, disease, hunger, a dearth of fresh water, the loss of arable land, the destruction of our lands, oceans, atmosphere, the weather will go wonky, the clathrate gun will begin firing and “PFFFFFT” we are gone.
The possibility that we as a physical race will ever visit even another solar system much less another star is nil. In fact, it unlikely in the extreme that we will ever establish a viable presence on Mars (assuming humans can ever reach it and return) or even the moon. There is no national will on the planet to do something like that. It’s all war, spying and lying. There is no government on earth whose primary objective it taking care of its citizens. Everyone is either preparing to fight or is already fighting over the remaining resources, all in the name of peace. But there has never been any peace on Earth and there never will be.
The US ( and everyone else) spies on every citizen and on everyone else they can. No country can progress much because of the money they spend on weapons. In the US, we can no longer afford to replace our aging infrastructure because we invest in ridiculous boondoggles like the F-35, Littoral combat ships and a thousand military bases all over the world. Do you know why we are in Afghanistan? Syria? Why we invaded Iraq and Libya. No, you don’t. Because you are watching Judge Judy or DWTS and are as clueless as everyone else. And everyone in every country is basically in the same boat.
“But we will escape to another solar system by then!” Sorry, no. See, only ~2 billion years from now by earth time or ~2.5 million light years by distance is Andromeda which is heading for us. The Milky way and Andromeda are being drawn together by their gravitational fields and will collide. There won’t be anything left until a new super-galaxy forms from the wreckage over additional billions of years. Even if we left yesterday and traveled at near light speed, we couldn’t get away from the train wreck in time.
I just watched a 2018 PBS/NOVA documentary on Black Holes.The scientists postulate that the center of a black hole contains some mass which is compressed to a ‘point’…”Infinitesimally small” says Neil deGrasse Tyson in which the force of gravity becomes infinite. However, if this point holds infinite gravity, nothing else can. There can’t be multiple infinities in one physical universe. Further, when black holes collide, each of them can’t have infinite gravity which they then combine to form a bigger black hole…which supposedly has some exponent of infinite gravity. So maybe ‘infinite’ is a misnomer, or maybe it only appears ‘infinite’ to our laws of physics, or maybe the ‘infinite’ part is already through the looking glass and out the other side. Let’s get back to the ‘point’ which sounds an awful lot like a ‘singularity’…like the one which created our universe. As a matter of fact, that’s exactly what happened. Infinite gravity in one side, a new universe out the other.
Questions arise: Does the lifetime of the black hole equal the time of a new universe’s expansion? Does the universe’s bubble burst when the black hole dissipates…if black holes CAN dissipate? Does it just expand until it’s own black holes eat all the matter it contains? Or do black holes create new universes whenever they feed on a new galaxy – like ducks having bowel movements – one after another? I don’t know, but I’ll think about it.